Amid high food prices in 1972, Sweden's National Board of Health and Welfare developed the idea of "basic foods" that were both cheap and nutritious, and "supplemental foods" that added nutrition missing from the basic foods. Anna-Britt Agnsäter, chief of the "test kitchen" for Kooperativa Förbundet (a cooperative Swedish retail chain), held a lecture the next year on how to illustrate these food groups. Attendee Fjalar Clemes suggested a triangle displaying basic foods at the base. Agnsäter developed the idea into the first food pyramid, which was introduced to the public in 1974 in KF's Vi magazine. The pyramid was divided into basic foods at the base, including milk, cheese, margarine, bread, cereals and potatoes; a large section of supplemental vegetables and fruit; and an apex of supplemental meat, fish and eggs. The pyramid competed with the National Board's "dietary circle," which KF saw as problematic for resembling a cake divided into seven slices, and for not indicating how much of each food should be eaten. While the Board distanced itself from the pyramid, KF continued to promote it, and food pyramids were developed in other Scandinavian countries, as well as West Germany, Japan and Sri Lanka. The United States later developed its first food pyramid in 1992. It could also signify the scientific version, which shows the amount of energy, see food pyramid of numbers or food pyramid of biomass
Food Pyramid published by the WHO and FAO Joint Expert Consultation
The representation as a pyramid is not precise, and involves variations due to the alternative percentages of different elements, but the main sections can be represented. Note that the percentages expressed are by energy (joules or calories) and not by weight, hence free sugars, for example, since they are, by definition, more refined, should be significantly lower than 10% of intake when measured in food compared to other carbohydrates (those still in their natural form).
USDA food pyramid
Health Tips for Today - Food Guide Pyramid. Milk and its derivative products are a rich source of dietary calcium, but also provide protein, phosphorus, vitamin A, and vitamin D. However, many dairy products are high in saturated fat and cholesterol compared to vegetables, fruits and whole grains, which is why skimmed products are available as an alternative. For adults, three cups of dairy products are recommended per day.
Meat and beans
The meat group is one of the major compacted food groups in the food guide pyramid. Many of the same nutrients found in meat can also be found in foods like eggs, dry beans, and nuts, such foods are typically placed in the same category as meats, as meat alternatives. These include tofu, products that resemble meat or fish but are made with soy, eggs, and cheeses. For those who do not consume meat or animal products (see Vegetarianism, veganism and Taboo food and drink), meat analogs, tofu, beans, lentils, chick peas, nuts and other high-protein vegetables are also included in this group. The food guide pyramid suggests that adults eat 2–3 servings per day. One serving of meat is 4 oz (110 g), about the size of a deck of cards.
Many nutritional experts, like Harvard nutritionist Dr. Walter Willett, believe the 1992 pyramid does not reflect the latest research on dietetics. Certain dietary choices that have been linked to heart disease, such as three cups of whole milk and an 8 oz (230 g) serving of hamburger daily, were technically permitted under the pyramid. The pyramid also lacked differentiation within the protein-rich group ("Meat, Poultry, Fish, Dry Beans, Eggs, and Nuts").
Some of the recommended quantities for the different types of food in the old pyramid have also come under criticism for lack of clarity. For instance, the pyramid recommends two to three servings from the protein-rich group, but this is intended to be a maximum. The pyramid recommends two to four fruit servings, but this is intended to be the minimum.
The fats group as a whole have been put at the tip of the pyramid, under the direction to eat as little as possible, which is largely problematic. Under the guide, one would assume to avoid fats and fatty foods, which can lead to health problems. For one, fat is essential in a person's general sustainability. Research suggests that unsaturated fats aid in weight loss, reduce heart disease risk, lower blood sugar, and even lower cholesterol. These fats can be found in olive oil, nuts, pesto, seafood (including fish, shrimp, squid, and krill among many more) and avocados. Also, they are very long sustaining, and help keep blood sugar at a steady level. On top of that, these fats help brain function as well.
Several books have claimed that food and agricultural associations exert undue political power on the USDA. Food industries, such as milk companies, have been accused of influencing the United States Department of Agriculture into making the colored spots on the newly created food pyramid larger for their particular product. The milk section has been claimed to be the easiest to see out of the six sections of the pyramid, making individuals believe that more milk should be consumed on a daily basis compared to the others. Furthermore, the inclusion of milk as a group unto itself implies that is an essential part of a healthy diet, despite the many people who are lactose intolerant or choose to abstain from dairy, and a number of cultures that have historically consumed little if any dairy products. Joel Fuhrman says in his book Eat to Live that U.S. taxpayers must contribute $20 billion on price supports to artificially reduce the price of cattle feed to benefit the dairy, beef and veal industries, and then pay the medical bills for an overweight population. He asks if the USDA is under the influence of the food industry, because a food pyramid based on science would have vegetables at its foundation.
These controversies prompted the creation of pyramids for specific audiences, particularly some Vegetarian Diet Pyramids.
The Harvard School of Public Health proposes the Healthy eating pyramid, which includes calcium and multi-vitamin supplements as well as moderate amounts of alcohol, as an alternative to the Food Guide Pyramid. Health Tips for Today - Food Guide Pyramid. Many observers[who?] believe that the Harvard pyramid follows the results of nutrition studies published in peer-reviewed scientific journals more closely. But in their book Fantastic Voyage: Live Long Enough to Live Forever, published in 2004, Ray Kurzweil and Terry Grossman M.D., point out that the guidelines provided in the Harvard Pyramid fail to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy oils. In addition, whole-grain foods are given more priority than vegetables, which should not be the case, as vegetables have a lower glycemic load. Other observations are that fish should be given a higher priority due to its high omega-3 content, and that high fat dairy products should be excluded. As an alternative, the authors postulate a new food pyramid, emphasising low glycemic-load vegetables, healthy fats, such as avocados, nuts and seeds, lean animal protein, fish, and extra virgin olive oil.
The University of Michigan Integrative Medicine’s Healing Foods Pyramid emphasizes plant-based choices, variety and balance. It includes sections for seasonings and water as well as healthy fats.
MyPlate is the current nutrition guide published by the United States Department of Agriculture, depicting a place setting with a plate and glass divided into five food groups. It replaced the USDA's MyPyramid guide on June 2, 2011, concluding 19 years of USDA food pyramid diagrams.
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